<html><head /> <style type="text/css"> <!-- .style1 {font-family: Verdana} --> </style><body> <META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-16"><title>Islam and a Century of Ethical Revolutions</title><meta name="keywords" content="Islam,mazrui,accountability,accountable,affairs,ali,ecology,economies,environment,ethics,gender,green,international,laissez-faire,morally,morals,political,racial,revolutions,thomas,uthup,values,women,religion,"><table style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:larger; " align="center" border="0" width="50%"><tbody><tr> <td style="background-color:silver; border-color:white; border-left-style:none; border-style:none; " width="730"><span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:larger; ">Islam and a Century of Ethical Revolutions</span></td> </tr> <tr> </tr> </tbody></table><br><table style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:medium; " align="center" bgcolor="white" border="0" width="50%"><tbody><tr> <td height="131" width="669"><p><span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small;"><strong>Editors Introduction</strong></span><span class="style1"> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">The twentieth century was a time of rapid changes for the world. Ali Mazrui and Thomas Uthup argue that religion and ethics are both causes and effects of one such rapid shift, within international affairs. They identify four ethical revolutions, focusing on Islam's relationship with these moral changes, and discuss how Islam has evolved with the emergence of such factors as socialism, globalisation and anti-colonialism, the results of which led to shifts in attitude and the creation of new possibilities.</span><br> <br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">In the twentieth century, major shifts in values in one part of the world can rapidly affect other regions. Religion, as a source of values, has obviously affected international affairs, but it has not received the same level of scholarly attention as creeds such as socialism and capitalism. In this story we argue that four ethical revolutions have occurred in the world in the past 100 years, and we examine the role of Islam in interacting with these four revolutions.</span></p> <p><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; "><A HREF="1555_500.ram" TARGET="_blank"><IMG src="1555_Th500.jpg" id="3059" type="3" align="left" width="102" height="102" name="" url="1555_500.ram"></A>Thomas Uthup discusses Islam and morally accountable economies.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-size:x-small;"><strong>Morally accountable economies</strong></span><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">The revolution against laissez-faire and in favour of morally accountable economies attracted twentieth-century Islam toward socialism in some countries. In the latter part of the twentieth century, the Islamic world's reactions to unchecked globalisation, in the economic sense of the term, began to include alternatives to capitalism and socialism. Three distinctive features of the Islamic moral dimension with special reference to international political economy may be noted. First, strictures against interest have influenced the growth of Islamic international banking institutions that have incorporated these prohibitions. Second, a bias toward redistribution of wealth and social justice has been exhibited in aid and labor policies in the oil-rich states during the 1970s. Third, a set of moral prescriptions and proscriptions offer an opportunity for economic growth that is balanced and just. Although much remains to be done, there are promising beginnings.</span></p> <p><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; "><A HREF="1555_501.ram" TARGET="_blank"><IMG src="1555_Th501.jpg" id="3060" type="3" align="left" width="102" height="102" name="" url="1555_501.ram"></A>Thomas Uthup discusses the revolution for racial equality in Islam.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-size:x-small;"><strong>Racial revolution</strong></span><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">The revolution for racial equality and against imperialism attracted twentieth-century Islam toward nationalist and anti-colonialist forces in developing countries. The Second World War played an important role in weakening the colonial empires and leaving them vulnerable to anti-colonialist struggles, including those fueled by Islam. Some prominent African-Americans were also attracted to Islam in the civil-rights struggle in the 1960s; Islam's doctrinal opposition to slavery and racism were particularly attractive to African-Americans like Malcolm X. In the twilight period of the twentieth century, Islam is also a mobilising force for liberation in various areas of the world. Since many of these struggles bring in outside actors, they have implications for international politics.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; "><A HREF="1555_502.ram" TARGET="_blank"><IMG src="1555_Th502.jpg" id="3061" type="3" align="left" width="102" height="102" name="" url="1555_502.ram"></A>Thomas Uthup talks about the revolution for gender equality in Islam.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-size:x-small;"><strong>Gender revolution</strong></span><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">The revolution for gender equality caught Islam at its most sensitive point. Current attempts in Islam focus on enhancing the position of children and thereby indirectly enhancing the position of women in society. The Muslim world still has a long way to go in terms of gender equity in economics and society, although there is doctrinal support for such measures. In some senses, the Muslim world is far ahead of the West in terms of political power for women. For instance, the Muslim world in the last third of the twentieth century produced four women prime ministers in three different countries (Pakistan, Bangladesh and Turkey) long before the United States has produced a woman president. We recommend that the Muslim world respond to the gender revolution in order to bring about gender equity in politics, economics and society.</span><br> <br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; "><A HREF="1555_503.ram" TARGET="_blank"><IMG src="1555_Th503.jpg" id="3062" type="3" align="left" width="102" height="102" name="" url="1555_503.ram"></A>Thomas Uthup discusses the fourth, green revolution.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p> <span style="font-size:x-small;"><strong>Green revolution</strong></span><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">The fourth revolution is the green revolution, which concerns ecology and the environment. Aspects of this require worldwide consensus. Where does the Muslim world stand on environmental issues? Islam does offer values that are relevant for policy on environmental concerns. Issues of population growth are also significant to the environment. Where does the Muslim world stand on issues of population policy and their global implications? Refugees and immigration policy in the West also have implications for global environmental policy and international politics.</span> </p> </p> <p><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; "><A HREF="1555_504.ram" TARGET="_blank"><IMG src="1555_Th504.jpg" id="3063" type="3" align="left" width="102" height="102" name="" url="1555_504.ram"></A>Thomas Uthup talks about why these four revolutions will continue to be needed.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-size:x-small;"><strong>Conclusion</strong></span><br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">The four revolutions themselves will continue to be needed. The economies need to be socially accountable, societies need to be racially equitable, and the world needs to be gender-egalitarian. And the human race needs to be collectively responsible. The world may be globalised, but it still has to be villagised. The compassion of the village has yet to be globalised. Religion--with its concern for the betterment of human beings and the realisation of their full potential, its strictures against war and its support for social justice--can play a more positive role in international affairs in the new millennium.</span><br> <br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; ">Scholars of religion, policymakers and the media must unite to bring to the forefront those values that promote a just world and a healthy globe. With more than a billion adherents, Islam is bound to be one of the most influential sets of values affecting international relations in the new millennium. We hope that it will contribute to the four ethical revolutions in a positive way.</span><br> <br> <span style="font-family:Verdana; font-size:x-small; font-style:italic; ">This story is part of a paper given at the "Religion and International Relations" conference on May, 27, 2000, at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The conference was organised by <I>Millennium</I>, a journal of international studies.</span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody></table> </body></html>